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DMN FEEL handbook

This is a vademecum for the FEEL expression language from the DMN specification, as also implemented by the Drools DMN open source engine.

This is not intented as an exahustive documentation of the DMN capabilities of Drools; this is intended as a handy a pocket reference for FEEL usage, a FEEL pocket guide, a FEEL reference, a FEEL quick reference, a FEEL cheatsheet,
a FEEL handbook.

Looking for a gentle introduction to the DMN standard? We have just the right crash course on DMN, freely available for you at: learn-dmn-in-15-minutes.com.

You can refer to the complete Drools DMN Engine documentation on the main Drools website here.

The FEEL (Friendly Enough Expression Language) is intended as a common ground between business analysts, programmers, domain experts and stakeholders.

The FEEL language design include the following features:

The following chapters presents basic FEEL syntax. You can refer to the other chapters for details of the built-in and extended FEEL functions.

FEEL values

FEEL: supports the following data types:

number

Examples:

47
-9.123
1.2*10**3 // expression resulting in 1.2e3

Numbers in FEEL are based on the IEEE 754-2008 Decimal 128 format, with 34 digits of precision. Internally, numbers are represented in Java as BigDecimals with MathContext DECIMAL128. FEEL supports only one number data type, so the same type is used to represent both integers and floating point numbers.

FEEL numbers use a dot (.) as a decimal separator. FEEL does not support -INF, +INF, or NaN. FEEL uses null to represent invalid numbers.

FEEL specification does not support a literal scientific notation. E.g., 1.2e3 is not valid FEEL syntax. You can use 1.2*10**3 instead.

Drools extends the DMN specification and supports additional number notations:

string

Example:

"John Doe"

Strings in FEEL are any sequence of characters delimited by double quotation marks.

boolean

Example:

true

FEEL uses three-valued boolean logic, so a boolean logic expression may have values true, false, or null.

date

Example:

date( "2017-06-23" )

Date literals are not supported in FEEL, but you can use the built-in date() function to construct date values. Date strings in FEEL follow the format defined in the XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes document. The format is "YYYY-MM-DD" where YYYY is the year with four digits, MM is the number of the month with two digits, and DD is the number of the day.

Date objects have time equal to "00:00:00", which is midnight. The dates are considered to be local, without a timezone.

Semantic of date properties; examples:

date( "2022-12-31" ).year = 2022
date( "2022-12-31" ).month = 12
date( "2022-12-31" ).day = 31
date( "2017-11-08" ).weekday = 3

You can access year, month, day, weekday properties on a date value, for the values of its named components.

time

Examples:

time( "04:25:12" )
time( "14:10:00+02:00" )
time( "22:35:40.345-05:00" )
time( "15:00:30z" )
time( "09:30:00@Europe/Rome" )

Time literals are not supported in FEEL, but you can use the built-in time() function to construct date values. Time strings in FEEL follow the format defined in the XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes document. The format is "hh:mm:ss[.uuu][(+-)hh:mm]" where hh is the hour of the day (from 00 to 23), mm is the minutes in the hour, and ss is the number of seconds in the minute. Optionally, the string may define the number of milliseconds (uuu) within the second and contain a positive (+) or negative (-) offset from UTC time to define its timezone. Instead of using an offset, you can use the letter z to represent the UTC time, which is the same as an offset of -00:00. Instead of using an offset, you can also use the symbol @ followed by a IANA timezone. If no offset is defined, the time is considered to be local.

Time values that define an offset or a timezone cannot be compared to local times that do not define an offset or a timezone.

Semantic of time properties; examples:

time( "13:20:00-05:00" ).hour = 13
time( "13:20:00-05:00" ).minute = 20
time( "13:20:00-05:00" ).second = 0
time( "13:20:00-05:00" ).time offset = duration("PT-5H")
time( "13:20:00@Europe/Rome" ).timezone = "Europe/Rome"
time( "13:20:00@Etc/UTC" ).timezone = "Etc/UTC"
time( "13:20:00@Etc/GMT" ).timezone = "Etc/GMT"

You can access hour, minute, second, time offset, timezone properties on a time value, for the values of its named components.

date and time

Examples:

date and time( "2017-10-22T23:59:00" )
date and time( "2017-06-13T14:10:00+02:00" )
date and time( "2017-02-05T22:35:40.345-05:00" )
date and time( "2017-06-13T15:00:30z" )
date and time( "2017-06-13T09:30:00@Europe/Rome" )

Date and time literals are not supported in FEEL, but you can use the built-in date and time() function to construct date and time values. Date and time strings in FEEL follow the format defined in the XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes document. The format is "<date>T<time>", where <date> and <time> follow the prescribed XML schema formatting, conjoined by T.

Semantic of date and time properties; examples:

date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).year = 2016
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).month = 7
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).day = 29
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).weekday = 5
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).hour = 5
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).minute = 48
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).second = 23
date and time( "2016-07-29T05:48:23.765-05:00" ).time offset = duration("PT-5H")
date and time( "2018-12-10T10:30:00@Europe/Rome" ).timezone = "Europe/Rome"
date and time( "2018-12-10T10:30:00@Etc/UTC" ).timezone = "Etc/UTC"

You can access year, month, day, weekday, hour, minute, second, time offset, timezone properties on a date and time value, for the values of its named components.

days and time duration

Examples:

duration( "P1DT23H12M30S" )
duration( "P23D" )
duration( "PT12H" )
duration( "PT35M" )

Days and time duration literals are not supported in FEEL, but you can use the built-in duration() function to construct days and time duration values. Days and time duration strings in FEEL follow the format defined in the XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes document, but are restricted to only days, hours, minutes and seconds. Months and years are not supported.

Semantic of days and time duration properties; examples:

duration( "P2DT20H14M" ).days = 2
duration( "P2DT20H14M" ).hours = 20
duration( "P2DT20H14M" ).minutes = 14
duration( "P2DT20H14M5S" ).seconds = 5

You can access days, hours, minutes, seconds, properties on a days and time duration value, for the values of its named components.

years and month duration

Examples:

duration( "P3Y5M" )
duration( "P2Y" )
duration( "P10M" )
duration( "P25M" )

Years and time duration literals are not supported in FEEL, but you can use the built-in duration() function to construct years and month duration values. Days and time duration strings in FEEL follow the format defined in the XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes document, but are restricted to only years and months. Days, hours, minutes, or seconds are not supported.

Semantic of years and month duration properties; examples:

duration( "P1Y" ).years = 1
duration( "P1Y" ).months = 0

You can access years, months, properties on a years and month duration value, for the values of its named components.

function

Example:

function(a, b) a + b

FEEL has function literals (or anonymous functions, lambda functions) that you can use to create functions.

In the example, the FEEL expression creates a function that adds the parameters a and b and returns the result.

context

Example:

{ x : 5, y : 3 }

FEEL has context literals that you can use to create contexts. A context in FEEL is a list of key and value pairs, similar to maps in languages like Java.

In the example, the expression creates a context with two entries, x and y, representing a coordinate in a chart.

In DMN 1.2, another way to create contexts is to create an item definition that contains the list of keys as attributes, and then declare the variable as having that item definition type.

The Drools DMN API supports DMN ItemDefinition structural types in a DMNContext represented in two ways:

range (or interval)

Example interval between 1 and 10, including the boundaries (a closed interval on both endpoints):

[ 1 .. 10 ]

Example interval between 1 hour and 12 hours, including the lower boundary (a closed interval), but excluding the upper boundary (an open interval):

[ duration("PT1H") .. duration("PT12H") )

The syntax of a range is defined in the following formats:

FEEL range ebnf

The expression for the endpoint must return a comparable value, and the lower bound endpoint must be lower than the upper bound endpoint.

You can use ranges in decision tables to test for ranges of values, or use ranges in simple literal expressions.

For example, the following literal expression returns true if the value of a variable x is between 0 and 100:
x in [ 1 .. 100 ]

Semantic of range properties; examples:

(1..10].start included = false
(1..10].start = 1
(1..10].end = 10
(1..10].end included = true

You can access start, end, start included, end included, properties on a range value, for the values of its named components.

list

Example:

[ 2, 3, 4, 5 ]

FEEL has list literals that you can use to create lists of items. A list in FEEL is represented by a comma-separated list of values enclosed in square brackets.

Example to return the second element of a list x:

x[2]

Example to return the second-to-last element of a list x:

x[-2]

All lists in FEEL contain elements of the same type and are immutable. Elements in a list can be accessed by index, where the first element is 1. Negative indexes can access elements starting from the end of the list so that -1 is the last element.

Elements in a list can also be counted by the function count, which uses the list of elements as the parameter. For example, the following expression returns 4:
count([ 2, 3, 4, 5 ])

Properties of FEEL values

When the type is date and time, date, time, days and time duration, years and month duration or range, you can access the named components mentioned in each of the sections above.

The semantic of the component is:

FEEL expressions

This chapter explores some of the most useful FEEL operators to build basic expressions.

if expression

Examples:

if 20 > 0 then "YES" else "NO"   //➔ "YES"
if (20 - (10 * 2)) > 0 then "YES" else "NO"   //➔ "NO"
if (2 ** 3) = 8 then "YES" else "NO"   //➔ "YES"
if (4 / 2) != 2 then "YES" else "NO"   //➔ "NO"

You can use the if expression as the classic if-then-else operator in other languages.

for expression

Examples:

for i in [1, 2, 3] return i * i   //➔ [1, 4, 9]
for i in [1,2,3], j in [1,2,3] return i*j   //➔ [1, 2, 3, 2, 4, 6, 3, 6, 9]

You can use the for expression to produce new values based on the iteration context(s).

This is similar to list comprehension and mapping from Functional Programming.

quantified expression

These operators (some, every) are similar to list comprehension for filtering from Functional Programming concepts.

some (name) in (list) satisfies (predicate)

Examples:

some i in [1, 2, 3] satisfies i > 2   //➔ true
some i in [1, 2, 3] satisfies i > 4   //➔ false

You can use the some to check if at least some element satisfies specific conditions from iteration context(s) built from the supplied list.

every (name) in (list) satisfies (predicate)

Examples:

every i in [1, 2, 3] satisfies i > 1   //➔ false
every i in [1, 2, 3] satisfies i > 0   //➔ true

You can use the every to check if all the elements satisfies specific conditions from iteration context(s) built from the supplied list.

in expression

Examples:

1 in [1..10]   //➔ true
1 in (1..10]   //➔ false
10 in [1..10]   //➔ true
10 in [1..10)   //➔ false

You can use the in expression to check if a given value is matched by a specified range.

String functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for strings.

substring( string, start position, length? )

Examples:

substring( "testing",3 ) = "sting"
substring( "testing",3,3 ) = "sti"
substring( "testing", -2, 1 ) = "n"
substring( "\U01F40Eab", 2 ) = "ab"

Returns the substring from the start position for the specified length. The first character is at position value 1.

Parameter Type
string string
start position number
length (Optional) number

string length( string )

Examples:

string length( "tes" ) = 3
string length( "\U01F40Eab" ) = 3
Parameter Type
string string

Calculates the length of the specified string.

upper case( string )

Examples:

upper case( "aBc4" ) = "ABC4"
Parameter Type
string string

Produces an uppercase version of the specified string.

lower case( string )

Examples:

lower case( "aBc4" ) = "abc4"
Parameter Type
string string

Produces a lowercase version of the specified string.

substring before( string, match )

Examples:

substring before( "testing", "ing" ) = "test"
substring before( "testing", "xyz" ) = ""
Parameter Type
string string
match string

Calculates the substring before the match.

substring after( string, match )

Examples:

substring after( "testing", "test" ) = "ing"
substring after( "", "a" ) = ""
Parameter Type
string string
match string

Calculates the substring after the match.

replace( input, pattern, replacement, flags? )

Examples:

replace( "banana", "a", "o" ) = "bonono"
replace( "abcd", "(ab)|(a)", "[1=$1][2=$2]" ) = "[1=ab][2=]cd"
Parameter Type
input string
pattern string
replacement string
flags (Optional) string

Calculates the regular expression replacement.

contains( string, match )

Examples:

contains( "testing", "to" ) = false

Returns true if the string contains the match.

Parameter Type
string string
match string

starts with( string, match )

Examples:

starts with( "testing", "te" ) = true
Parameter Type
string string
match string

Returns true if the string starts with the match

ends with( string, match )

Examples:

ends with( "testing", "g" ) = true
Parameter Type
string string
match string

Returns true if the string ends with the match.

matches( input, pattern, flags? )

Examples:

matches( "teeesting", "^te*sting" ) = true
Parameter Type
input string
pattern string
flags (Optional) string

Returns true if the input matches the regular expression.

split( string, delimiter )

Examples:

split( "John Doe", "\\s" ) = ["John", "Doe"]
split( "a;b;c;;", ";" ) = ["a","b","c","",""]
Parameter Type
string string
delimiter string for a regular expression pattern

Returns a list of the original string and splits it at the delimiter regular expression pattern.

string join( list, delimiter )

Examples:

string join(["a","b","c"], "_and_") = "a_and_b_and_c"
string join(["a","b","c"], "") = "abc"
string join(["a","b","c"], null) = "abc"
string join(["a"], "X") = "a"
string join(["a",null,"c"], "X") = "aXc"
string join([], "X") = ""
Parameter Type
list list of string
delimiter string

Returns a string which is composed by joining all the string elements from the list parameter, separated by the delimiter. The delimiter can be an empty string. Null elements in the list parameter are ignored. If list is empty, the result is the empty string. If delimiter is null, the string elements are joined without a separator.

string join( list )

Examples:

string join(["a","b","c"], "_and_") = "a_and_b_and_c"
string join(["a","b","c"], "") = "abc"
string join(["a","b","c"], null) = "abc"
string join(["a"], "X") = "a"
string join(["a",null,"c"], "X") = "aXc"
string join([], "X") = ""
Parameter Type
list list of string

Returns a string which is composed by joining all the string elements from the list parameter. Null elements in the list parameter are ignored. If list is empty, the result is the empty string.

List functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for lists.

list contains( list, element )

Examples:

list contains( [1,2,3], 2 ) = true
Parameter Type
list list
element Any type, including null

Returns true if the list contains the element.

count( list )

Examples:

count( [1,2,3] ) = 3
count( [] ) = 0
count( [1,[2,3]] ) = 2
Parameter Type
list list

Counts the elements in the list.

min( list )

Alternative signature: min( e1, e2, ..., eN )

Examples:

min( [1,2,3] ) = 1
min( 1 ) = 1
min( [1] ) = 1
Parameter Type
list list

Returns the minimum comparable element in the list.

max( list )

Alternative signature: max( e1, e2, ..., eN )

Examples:

max( 1,2,3 ) = 3
max( [] ) = null
Parameter Type
list list

Returns the maximum comparable element in the list.

sum( list )

Alternative signature: sum( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

sum( [1,2,3] ) = 6
sum( 1,2,3 ) = 6
sum( 1 ) = 1
sum( [] ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Returns the sum of the numbers in the list.

mean( list )

Alternative signature: mean( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

mean( [1,2,3] ) = 2
mean( 1,2,3 ) = 2
mean( 1 ) = 1
mean( [] ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of the elements in the list.

all( list )

Alternative signature: all( b1, b2, ..., bN )

Examples:

all( [false,null,true] ) = false
all( true ) = true
all( [true] ) = true
all( [] ) = true
all( 0 ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of boolean elements

Returns true if all elements in the list are true.

any( list )

Alternative signature: any( b1, b2, ..., bN )

Examples:

any( [false,null,true] ) = true
any( false ) = false
any( [] ) = false
any( 0 ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of boolean elements

Returns true if any element in the list is true.

sublist( list, start position, length? )

Examples:

sublist( [4,5,6], 1, 2 ) = [4,5]
Parameter Type
list list
start position number
length (Optional) number

Returns the sublist from the start position, limited to the length elements.

append( list, item )

Examples:

append( [1], 2, 3 ) = [1,2,3]
Parameter Type
list list
item Any type

Creates a list that is appended to the item or items.

concatenate( list )

Examples:

concatenate( [1,2],[3] ) = [1,2,3]
Parameter Type
list list

Creates a list that is the result of the concatenated lists.

insert before( list, position, newItem )

Examples:

insert before( [1,3],1,2 ) = [2,1,3]
Parameter Type
list list
position number
newItem Any type

Creates a list with the newItem inserted at the specified position.

remove( list, position )

Examples:

remove( [1,2,3], 2 ) = [1,3]
Parameter Type
list list
position number

Creates a list with the removed element excluded from the specified position.

reverse( list )

Examples:

reverse( [1,2,3] ) = [3,2,1]
Parameter Type
list list

Returns a reversed list.

index of( list, match )

Examples:

index of( [1,2,3,2],2 ) = [2,4]
Parameter Type
list list
match Any type

Returns indexes matching the element.

union( list )

Examples:

union( [1,2],[2,3] ) = [1,2,3]
Parameter Type
list list

Returns a list of all the elements from multiple lists and excludes duplicates.

distinct values( list )

Examples:

distinct values( [1,2,3,2,1] ) = [1,2,3]
Parameter Type
list list

Returns a list of elements from a single list and excludes duplicates.

flatten( list )

Examples

flatten( [[1,2],[[3]], 4] ) = [1,2,3,4]
Parameter Type
list list

Returns a flattened list.

product( list )

Alternative signature: product( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

product( [2, 3, 4] ) = 24
product( [] ) = null
product( 2, 3, 4 ) = 24
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Returns the product of the numbers in the list.

median( list )

Alternative signature: median( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

median( 8, 2, 5, 3, 4 ) = 4
median( [6, 1, 2, 3] ) = 2.5
median( [ ] ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Returns the median of the numbers in the list. If the number of elements is odd, the result is the middle element. If the number of elements is even, the result is the average of the two middle elements.

stddev( list )

Alternative signature: stddev( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

stddev( 2, 4, 7, 5 ) = 2.081665999466132735282297706979931
stddev( [47] ) = null
stddev( 47 ) = null
stddev( [ ] ) = null
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Returns the standard deviation of the numbers in the list.

mode( list )

Alternative signature: mode( n1, n2, ..., nN )

Examples:

mode( 6, 3, 9, 6, 6 ) = [6]
mode( [6, 1, 9, 6, 1] ) = [1, 6]
mode( [ ] ) = [ ]
Parameter Type
list list of number elements

Returns the mode of the numbers in the list. If multiple elements are returned, the numbers are sorted in ascending order.

Numeric functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for numbers.

decimal( n, scale )

Examples:

decimal( 1/3, 2 ) = .33
decimal( 1.5, 0 ) = 2
decimal( 2.5, 0 ) = 2
decimal( 1.035, 2 ) = 1.04
decimal( 1.045, 2 ) = 1.04
decimal( 1.055, 2 ) = 1.06
decimal( 1.065, 2 ) = 1.06
Parameter Type
n number
scale number in the range [−6111..6176]

Returns a number with the specified scale.

floor( n )

Alternative signature: floor( n, scale )

Examples:

floor( 1.5 ) = 1
floor( -1.56, 1 ) = -1.6
floor( -1.5 ) = -2
Parameter Type
n number

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode flooring. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

ceiling( n )

Alternative signature: ceiling( n, scale )

Examples:

ceiling( 1.5 ) = 2
ceiling( -1.56, 1 ) = -1.5
ceiling( -1.5 ) = -1

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode ceiling. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

Parameter Type
n number

round up( n, scale )

Examples:

round up( 5.5, 0 ) = 6 
round up( -5.5, 0 ) = -6 
round up( 1.121, 2 ) = 1.13
round up( -1.126, 2 ) = -1.13

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode round up. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

Parameter Type
n number
scale number

round down( n, scale )

Examples:

round down( 5.5, 0 ) = 5 
round down( -5.5, 0 ) = -5 
round down( 1.121, 2 ) = 1.12
round down( -1.126, 2 ) = -1.12

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode round down. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

Parameter Type
n number
scale number

round half up( n, scale )

Examples:

round half up( 5.5, 0 ) = 6 
round half up( -5.5, 0 ) = -6 
round half up( 1.121, 2 ) = 1.12
round half up( -1.126, 2 ) = -1.13

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode round half up. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

Parameter Type
n number
scale number

round half down( n, scale )

Examples:

round half down( 5.5, 0 ) = 5 
round half down( -5.5, 0 ) = -5 
round half down( 1.121, 2 ) = 1.12
round half down( -1.126, 2 ) = -1.13

Returns n with given scale and rounding mode round half down. If at least one of n or scale is null, the result is null.

Parameter Type
n number
scale number

abs( n )

Examples:

abs( 10 ) = 10
abs( -10 ) = 10
abs( @"PT5H" ) = @"PT5H"
abs( @"-PT5H" ) = @"PT5H"
Parameter Type
n number, days and time duration, or years and months duration

Returns the absolute value.

modulo( dividend, divisor )

Examples:

modulo( 12, 5 ) = 2
modulo( -12,5 )= 3
modulo( 12,-5 )= -3
modulo( -12,-5 )= -2
modulo( 10.1, 4.5 )= 1.1
modulo( -10.1, 4.5 )= 3.4
modulo( 10.1, -4.5 )= -3.4
modulo( -10.1, -4.5 )= -1.1
Parameter Type
dividend number
divisor number

Returns the remainder of the division of the dividend by the divisor. If either the dividend or divisor is negative, the result is of the same sign as the divisor.

sqrt( number )

Examples:

sqrt( 16 ) = 4

Returns the square root of the specified number.

Parameter Type
n number

log( number )

Examples:

decimal( log( 10 ), 2 ) = 2.30
Parameter Type
n number

Returns the logarithm of the specified number.

exp( number )

Examples:

decimal( exp( 5 ), 2 ) = 148.41
Parameter Type
n number

Returns Euler's number e raised to the power of the specified number.

odd( number )

Examples:

odd( 5 ) = true
odd( 2 ) = false
Parameter Type
n number

Returns true if the specified number is odd.

even( number )

Examples:

even( 5 ) = false
even ( 2 ) = true
Parameter Type
n number

Returns true if the specified number is even.

Boolean functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for booleans.

not( negand )

Examples

not( true ) = false
not( null ) = null
Parameter Type
negand boolean

Performs the logical negation of the negand operand.

Date and time functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for temporal date and time comparisons.

is( value1, value2 )

Examples:

is( date( "2012-12-25" ), time( "23:00:50" ) ) = false
is( date( "2012-12-25" ), date( "2012-12-25" ) ) = true
is( time( "23:00:50z" ), time( "23:00:50" ) ) = false
is( time( "23:00:50z" ), time( "23:00:50+00:00" ) ) = true
Parameter Type
value1 Any type
value2 Any type

Returns true if both values are the same element in the FEEL semantic domain.

Range functions

The following functions support temporal ordering operations to establish relationships between single scalar values and ranges of such values. These functions are similar to the components in the Health Level Seven (HL7) International Clinical Quality Language (CQL) 1.4 syntax.

before( )

Examples:

before( 1, 10 ) = true
before( 10, 1 ) = false
before( 1, [1..10] ) = false
before( 1, (1..10] ) = true
before( 1, [5..10] ) = true
before( [1..10], 10 ) = false
before( [1..10), 10 ) = true
before( [1..10], 15 ) = true
before( [1..10], [15..20] ) = true
before( [1..10], [10..20] ) = false
before( [1..10), [10..20] ) = true
before( [1..10], (10..20] ) = true

Returns true when an element A is before an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. before( point1 point2 )

b. before( point, range )

c. before( range, point )

d. before( range1,range2 )

Semantic:

a. point1 < point2

b. point < range.start or ( point = range.start and not(range.start included) )

c. range.end < point or ( range.end = point and not(range.end included) )

d. range1.end < range2.start or (( not(range1.end included) or not(range2.start included) ) and range1.end = range2.start )

after( )

Examples:

after( 10, 5 ) = true
after( 5, 10 ) = false
after( 12, [1..10] ) = true
after( 10, [1..10) ) = true
after( 10, [1..10] ) = false
after( [11..20], 12 ) = false
after( [11..20], 10 ) = true
after( (11..20], 11 ) = true
after( [11..20], 11 ) = false
after( [11..20], [1..10] ) = true
after( [1..10], [11..20] ) = false
after( [11..20], [1..11) ) = true
after( (11..20], [1..11] ) = true

Returns true when an element A is after an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. after( point1 point2 )

b. after( point range )

c. after( range, point )

d. after( range1 range2 )

Semantic:

a. point1 > point2

b. point > range.end or ( point = range.end and not(range.end included) )

c. range.start > point or ( range.start = point and not(range.start included) )

d. range1.start > range2.end or (( not(range1.start included) or not(range2.end included) ) and range1.start = range2.end )

meets( )

Examples:

meets( [1..5], [5..10] ) = true
meets( [1..5), [5..10] ) = false
meets( [1..5], (5..10] ) = false
meets( [1..5], [6..10] ) = false

Returns true when an element A meets an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. meets( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. range1.end included and range2.start included and range1.end = range2.start

met by( )

Examples:

met by( [5..10], [1..5] ) = true
met by( [5..10], [1..5) ) = false
met by( (5..10], [1..5] ) = false
met by( [6..10], [1..5] ) = false

Returns true when an element A is met by an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. met by( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. range1.start included and range2.end included and range1.start = range2.end

overlaps( )

Examples:

overlaps( [1..5], [3..8] ) = true
overlaps( [3..8], [1..5] ) = true
overlaps( [1..8], [3..5] ) = true
overlaps( [3..5], [1..8] ) = true
overlaps( [1..5], [6..8] ) = false
overlaps( [6..8], [1..5] ) = false
overlaps( [1..5], [5..8] ) = true
overlaps( [1..5], (5..8] ) = false
overlaps( [1..5), [5..8] ) = false
overlaps( [1..5), (5..8] ) = false
overlaps( [5..8], [1..5] ) = true
overlaps( (5..8], [1..5] ) = false
overlaps( [5..8], [1..5) ) = false
overlaps( (5..8], [1..5) ) = false

Returns true when an element A overlaps an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. overlaps( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. ( range1.end > range2.start or (range1.end = range2.start and range1.end included and range2.end included) ) and ( range1.start < range2.end or (range1.start = range2.end and range1.start included and range2.end included) )

overlaps before( )

Examples:

overlaps before( [1..5], [3..8] ) = true
overlaps before( [1..5], [6..8] ) = false
overlaps before( [1..5], [5..8] ) = true
overlaps before( [1..5], (5..8] ) = false
overlaps before( [1..5), [5..8] ) = false
overlaps before( [1..5), (1..5] ) = true
overlaps before( [1..5], (1..5] ) = true
overlaps before( [1..5), [1..5] ) = false
overlaps before( [1..5], [1..5] ) = false

Returns true when an element A overlaps before an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. overlaps before( range1 range2 )

Semantic:

a. ( range1.start < range2.start or (range1.start = range2.start and range1.start included and not(range2.start included)) ) and ( range1.end > range2.start or (range1.end = range2.start and range1.end included and range2.start included) ) and ( range1.end < range2.end or (range1.end = range2.end and (not(range1.end included) or range2.end included )) )

overlaps after( )

Examples:

overlaps after( [3..8], [1..5] )= true
overlaps after( [6..8], [1..5] )= false
overlaps after( [5..8], [1..5] )= true
overlaps after( (5..8], [1..5] )= false
overlaps after( [5..8], [1..5) )= false
overlaps after( (1..5], [1..5) )= true
overlaps after( (1..5], [1..5] )= true
overlaps after( [1..5], [1..5) )= false
overlaps after( [1..5], [1..5] )= false
overlaps after( (1..5), [1..5] )= false
overlaps after( (1..5], [1..6] )= false
overlaps after( (1..5], (1..5] )= false
overlaps after( (1..5], [2..5] )= false

Returns true when an element A overlaps after an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. overlaps after( range1 range2 )

Semantic:

a. ( range2.start < range1.start or (range2.start = range1.start and range2.start included and not( range1.start included)) ) and ( range2.end > range1.start or (range2.end = range1.start and range2.end included and range1.start included) ) and ( range2.end < range1.end or (range2.end = range1.end and (not(range2.end included) or range1.end included)) )

finishes( )

Examples:

finishes( 10, [1..10] ) = true
finishes( 10, [1..10) ) = false
finishes( [5..10], [1..10] ) = true
finishes( [5..10), [1..10] ) = false
finishes( [5..10), [1..10) ) = true
finishes( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true
finishes( (1..10], [1..10] ) = true

Returns true when an element A finishes an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. finishes( point, range )

b. finishes( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. range.end included and range.end = point

b. range1.end included = range2.end included and range1.end = range2.end and ( range1.start > range2.start or (range1.start = range2.start and (not(range1.start included) or range2.start included)) )

finished by( )

Examples:

finished by( [1..10], 10 ) = true
finished by( [1..10), 10 ) = false
finished by( [1..10], [5..10] ) = true
finished by( [1..10], [5..10) ) = false
finished by( [1..10), [5..10) ) = true
finished by( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true
finished by( [1..10], (1..10] ) = true

Returns true when an element A is finished by an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. finished by( range, point )

b. finished by( range1 range2 )

Semantic:

a. range.end included and range.end = point

b. range1.end included = range2.end included and range1.end = range2.end and ( range1.start < range2.start or (range1.start = range2.start and (range1.start included or not(range2.start included))) )

includes( )

Examples:

includes( [1..10], 5 ) = true
includes( [1..10], 12 ) = false
includes( [1..10], 1 ) = true
includes( [1..10], 10 ) = true
includes( (1..10], 1 ) = false
includes( [1..10), 10 ) = false
includes( [1..10], [4..6] ) = true
includes( [1..10], [1..5] ) = true
includes( (1..10], (1..5] ) = true
includes( [1..10], (1..10) ) = true
includes( [1..10), [5..10) ) = true
includes( [1..10], [1..10) ) = true
includes( [1..10], (1..10] ) = true
includes( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true

Returns true when an element A includes an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. includes( range, point )

b. includes( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. (range.start < point and range.end > point) or (range.start = point and range.start included) or (range.end = point and range.end included)

b. ( range1.start < range2.start or (range1.start = range2.start and (range1.start included or not(range2.start included))) ) and ( range1.end > range2.end or (range1.end = range2.end and (range1.end included or not(range2.end included))) )

during( )

Examples:

during( 5, [1..10] ) = true
during( 12, [1..10] ) = false
during( 1, [1..10] ) = true
during( 10, [1..10] ) = true
during( 1, (1..10] ) = false
during( 10, [1..10) ) = false
during( [4..6], [1..10] ) = true
during( [1..5], [1..10] ) = true
during( (1..5], (1..10] ) = true
during( (1..10), [1..10] ) = true
during( [5..10), [1..10) ) = true
during( [1..10), [1..10] ) = true
during( (1..10], [1..10] ) = true
during( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true

Returns true when an element A is during an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. during( point, range )

b. during( range1 range2 )

Semantic:

a. (range.start < point and range.end > point) or (range.start = point and range.start included) or (range.end = point and range.end included)

b. ( range2.start < range1.start or (range2.start = range1.start and (range2.start included or not(range1.start included))) ) and ( range2.end > range1.end or (range2.end = range1.end and (range2.end included or not(range1.end included))) )

starts( )

Examples:

starts( 1, [1..10] ) = true
starts( 1, (1..10] ) = false
starts( 2, [1..10] ) = false
starts( [1..5], [1..10] ) = true
starts( (1..5], (1..10] ) = true
starts( (1..5], [1..10] ) = false
starts( [1..5], (1..10] ) = false
starts( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true
starts( [1..10), [1..10] ) = true
starts( (1..10), (1..10) ) = true

Returns true when an element A starts an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. starts( point, range )

b. starts( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. range.start = point and range.start included

b. range1.start = range2.start and range1.start included = range2.start included and ( range1.end < range2.end or (range1.end = range2.end and (not(range1.end included) or range2.end included)) )

started by( )

Examples:

started by( [1..10], 1 ) = true
started by( (1..10], 1 ) = false
started by( [1..10], 2 ) = false
started by( [1..10], [1..5] ) = true
started by( (1..10], (1..5] ) = true
started by( [1..10], (1..5] ) = false
started by( (1..10], [1..5] ) = false
started by( [1..10], [1..10] ) = true
started by( [1..10], [1..10) ) = true
started by( (1..10), (1..10) ) = true

Returns true when an element A is started by an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. started by( range, point )

b. started by( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. range.start = point and range.start included

b. range1.start = range2.start and range1.start included = range2.start included and ( range2.end < range1.end or (range2.end = range1.end and (not(range2.end included) or range1.end included)) )

coincides( )

Examples:

coincides( 5, 5 ) = true
coincides( 3, 4 ) = false
coincides( [1..5], [1..5] ) = true
coincides( (1..5), [1..5] ) = false
coincides( [1..5], [2..6] ) = false

Returns true when an element A coincides with an element B and when the relevant requirements for evaluating to true are also met.

Signatures:

a. coincides( point1, point2 )

b. coincides( range1, range2 )

Semantic:

a. point1 = point2

b. range1.start = range2.start and range1.start included = range2.start included and range1.end = range2.end and range1.end included = range2.end included

Temporal functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for temporal operations.

day of year( date )

Examples:

day of year( date(2019, 9, 17) ) = 260
Parameter Type
date date or date and time

Returns the Gregorian number of the day of the year.

day of week( date )

Examples:

day of week( date(2019, 9, 17) ) = "Tuesday"
Parameter Type
date date or date and time

Returns the Gregorian day of the week: "Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday", "Saturday", or "Sunday".

month of year( date )

Examples:

month of year( date(2019, 9, 17) ) = "September"
Parameter Type
date date or date and time

Returns the Gregorian month of the year: "January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July", "August", "September", "October", "November", or "December".

month of year( date )

Parameter Type
date date or date and time

Returns the Gregorian week of the year as defined by ISO 8601.

Examples:

week of year( date(2019, 9, 17) ) = 38
week of year( date(2003, 12, 29) ) = 1
week of year( date(2004, 1, 4) ) = 1
week of year( date(2005, 1, 1) ) = 53
week of year( date(2005, 1, 3) ) = 1
week of year( date(2005, 1, 9) ) = 1

Sort functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for sorting operations.

sort( list, precedes )

Examples:

sort( list: [3,1,4,5,2], precedes: function(x,y) x < y ) = [1,2,3,4,5]

Returns a list of the same elements but ordered according to the sorting function.

Parameter Type
list list
precedes function

Context functions

This chapter explores the DMN FEEL specification built-in functions for contexts.

get value( m, key )

Examples:

get value( {key1 : "value1"}, "key1" ) = "value1"
get value( {key1 : "value1"}, "unexistent-key" ) = null
Parameter Type
m context
key string

Returns the value from the context for the specified entry key.

get entries( m )

Examples:

get entries( {key1 : "value1", key2 : "value2"} ) = [ { key : "key1", value : "value1" }, {key : "key2", value : "value2"} ]
Parameter Type
m context

Returns a list of key-value pairs for the specified context.

context( entries )

Examples:

context([{key:"a", value:1}, {key:"b", value:2}]) = {a:1, b:2}
context([{key:"a", value:1}, {key:"b", value:2, something: "else"}]) = {a:1, b:2}
context([{key:"a", value:1}, {key:"b"}]) = null
Parameter Type
entries list of context , each item SHALL have two entries having keys named "key" and "value" respectively

Returns a new context that includes all specified entries. If a context item contains additional entries beyond the required "key" and "value" entries, the additional entries are ignored. If a context item is missing the required "key" and "value" entries, the final result is null. See also: get entries() built-in function.

context put( context, key, value )

Examples:

context put({x:1}, "y", 2) = {x:1, y:2}
context put({x:1, y:0}, "y", 2) = {x:1, y:2}
context put({x:1, y:0, z:0}, "y", 2) = {x:1, y:2, z:0}
Parameter Type
context context
key string
value Any type

Returns a new context that includes the new entry, or overrides the existing value if an entry for the same key already exists in the supplied context parameter. A new entry is added as the last entry of the new context. If overriding an existing entry, the order of the keys maintains the same order as in the original context.

context put( context, keys, value )

Examples:

context put({x:1}, ["y"], 2) = context put({x:1}, "y", 2)
context put({x:1}, ["y"], 2) = {x:1, y:2}
context put({x:1, y: {a: 0} }, ["y", "a"], 2) = context put({x:1, y: {a: 0} }, "y", context put({a: 0}, ["a"], 2))
context put({x:1, y: {a: 0} }, ["y", "a"], 2) = {x:1, y: {a: 2} }
context put({x:1, y: {a: 0} }, [], 2) = null
Parameter Type
context context
keys list of string
value Any type

Returns the composite of nested invocations to context put() for each item in keys hierarchy in context.

If keys is a list of 1 element, this is equivalent to context put(context, key', value), where key' is the only element in the list keys.

If keys is a list of 2 or more elements, this is equivalent of calling context put(context, key', value'), with:
key' is the head element in the list keys,
value' is the result of invocation of context put(context', keys', value), where:
context' is the result of context.key',
keys' is the remainder of the list keys without the head element key'.

If keys is an empty list or null, the result is null.

context merge( contexts )

Examples:

context merge([{x:1}, {y:2}]) = {x:1, y:2}
context merge([{x:1, y:0}, {y:2}]) = {x:1, y:2}
Parameter Type
contexts list of context

Returns a new context that includes all entries from the given contexts; if some of the keys are equal, the entries are overridden. The entries are overridden in the same order as specified by the supplied parameter, with new entries added as the last entry in the new context.

Conversion functions

The following functions support conversion between values of different types. Some of these functions use specific string formats, such as the following examples:

date( from: string )

Examples:

date( "2012-12-25" ) - date( "2012-12-24" ) = duration( "P1D" )
Parameter Type Format
from string date string

Converts from to a date value.

date( from: date and time )

Examples:

date(date and time( "2012-12-25T11:00:00Z" )) = date( "2012-12-25" )
Parameter Type
from date and time

Converts from to a date value and sets time components to null.

date( year, month, day )

Examples:

date( 2012, 12, 25 ) = date( "2012-12-25" )
Parameter Type
year number
month number
day number

Produces a date from the specified year, month, and day values.

date and time( date, time )

Examples:

date and time ( "2012-12-24T23:59:00" ) = date and time(date( "2012-12-24" ), time( "23:59:00" ))

Produces a date and time from the specified date and ignores any time components and the specified time.

Parameter Type
date date or date and time
time time

date and time( from )

Examples:

date and time( "2012-12-24T23:59:00" ) + duration( "PT1M" ) = date and time( "2012-12-25T00:00:00" )
Parameter Type Format
from string date time string

Produces a date and time from the specified string.

time( from: string )

Examples:

time( "23:59:00z" ) + duration( "PT2M" ) = time( "00:01:00@Etc/UTC" )

Produces a time from the specified string.

Parameter Type Format
from string time string

time( from: date and time )

Examples:

time(date and time( "2012-12-25T11:00:00Z" )) = time( "11:00:00Z" )

Produces a time from the specified parameter and ignores any date components.

Parameter Type
from time or date and time

time( hour, minute, second, offset? )

Examples:

time( "23:59:00z" ) = time(23, 59, 0, duration( "PT0H" ))
Parameter Type
hour number
minute number
second number
offset (Optional) days and time duration or null

Produces a time from the specified hour, minute, and second component values.

number( from, grouping separator, decimal separator )

Examples:

number( "1 000,0", " ", "," ) = number( "1,000.0", ",", "." )
Parameter Type
from string representing a valid number
grouping separator Space (), comma (,), period (.), or null
decimal separator Same types as grouping separator, but the values cannot match

Converts from to a number using the specified separators.

string( from )

Examples:

string( 1.1 ) = "1.1"
string( null ) = null
Parameter Type
from Non-null value

Provides a string representation of the specified parameter.

duration( from )

Examples:

date and time( "2012-12-24T23:59:00" ) - date and time( "2012-12-22T03:45:00" ) = duration( "P2DT20H14M" )
duration( "P2Y2M" ) = duration( "P26M" )
Parameter Type Format
from string duration string

Converts from to a days and time duration value or years and months duration value.

years and months duration( from, to )

Examples:

years and months duration( date( "2011-12-22" ), date( "2013-08-24" ) ) = duration( "P1Y8M" )
Parameter Type
from date or date and time
to date or date and time

The parameters must be both of the same type: both parameters of date type, or both parameters of date and time type.

Calculates the years and months duration between the two specified parameters.

Miscellaneous functions

These functions provide support utilities for several miscellaneous use-cases. For example, when a decision depends on the current date, like deciding the support SLA over the weekends, additional charges for weekend delivery, etc.

It is important to note that the functions in this section are intended to be side-effect-free, but they are not deterministic and not idempotent from the perspective of an external observer.

As a user, you are encouraged to isolate the decision logic that uses these functions in specific DRG elements, such as Decisions. The encapsulation enables them to be overridden with synthetic values during scenario testing, that remain constant across executions of the DMN model's test cases.

now()

Examples:

now()

Returns the current date and time.

today()

Examples:

today()

Returns the current date.

KIE Extended functions

These functions are provided as an extension to the DMN Standard to enable support for various use-cases on top of the Drools DMN Engine.

invoke( namespace, modelName, decisionName, parameters )

Examples:

invoke(
    "http://namespace_of_model",
    "my model name",
    "my decision name",
    { a:1, b:2 }
)
Parameter Type
namespace string
modelName string
decisionName string
parameters context

Returns the result of the decision evaluation in the specified DMN model available to the DMNRuntime environment in the current DMN model is executed.

This function is deprecated in favor of encouraging the usage of DMN Standard capabilities wherever possible; since DMNv1.2 it shall be possible to use the DMN standard's Import functionality to import Business Knowledge Model (BKM) nodes and Decision Service nodes, to be invoked from another model.